The island of Pythagoras
Verdant of pine forests, vineyards and olive groves, with large sandy beaches and great monuments, Samos is located in the northeastern Aegean Sea, with an area of 476 sq km, a length of 44 km and a width of 19 km. its southeastern part is at two kilometers from the Mycale peninsula of Asia Minor. The mountain Kerketeus or Kerkis on the west side is the highest of the Aegean, with its peak Vigla at a height of 1,434 m. In the central part is the mountain Ambelos; its peak Karvounis rises at 1,153 m. The coastline has a length of 159 km. At the northeastern edge the bay Vathy is formed and on the southern side the large bays of Pythagorean and Marathokambos. Near the coast there are many small islands.
Samos offers many options for a nice holiday. On the north coast are the capital Samos, Vathy, Kokkari, Aghios Konstantinos and Karlovasi. On the south coast, are Pythagorean, Heraeon and the region of Marathokambos. Known around the world are the famous Samos wines. Also well known are ouzo and olive products.
Samos is homeland of the goddess Hera, the philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras, the astronomer Aristarchus and, according one version, of the philosopher Epicurus. In the valley of the settlement Mytilini, fossils of animals that lived before 10 000 000 years have been found. The first settlements were created at least during the 3rd millennium BC. The first settler was Anghaeos, from Sami of Cephalonia. The island was named after its son Samos. The first inhabitants were Carians and Leleges. Later, Ionians came, as well as settlers from Epidaurus, who brought the cult of Hera. From the late 7th century BC, Samos became an important trading center and founded colonies. In the 6th century, under the tyrant Polycrates, it was a great naval power, as well as an artistic center, with great poets and sculptors. Then, great works were made, as we see today in Pythagorean, built on the site of the ancient city.
Samos came under the dominion of the Persians and after the Persian Wars became a member of the Athenian League, but was conquered by the Athenians. It flourished again in the Hellenistic era, when it became a naval base of the Ptolemy of Egypt. In 129 BC joined the province of Asia by the Romans, who destroyed it during the wars against King Mithridates of Pontus. During the Byzantine period, after the 10th century, Samos experienced the domination of the Venetians, the Franks and the Genoese, who in 1475 ceded the island to the Turks, having previously moved the residents in the island of Chios. Samos was deserted for a hundred years, until the Turks gave privileges to Christians who wanted to return. During the Greek Revolution, Samos revolted on April 18, 1821, led by Lycurgus Logothetis – its tower still exists in Pythagorean. It was not joined to the Greek state, but with the same leader won its autonomy on December 10, 1832. It was liberated on November 11, 1912.
The most important monuments are situated in the Pythagorean and Heraeon, belonging to the UNESCO’s World Heritage List. They are the pier of the harbor, the Ditch of Eupalinos (a tunnel-aqueduct with clay pipe of a length of 1,045 m), the temple and the sanctuary of Hera – according to Herodotus, the three largest engineering projects of that era – the wall of Polycrates (with a length of 6,220 m) and the ancient theater.